Energy Quals & Publications

Qualifications Overview in Energy Consulting

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       Sample of Energy Project Clients

              Energy Bios

                     Key Energy Staff Resumes

                            List of SERA Energy Publications


Skumatz Economic Research Associates, Inc. (SERA) has worked in program evaluation, market assessment, and potential studies for residential (single and multi-family, and low income), commercial, industrial, and agricultural energy efficiency initiatives.  We have evaluated single programs, as well as entire utility portfolios.  The firm (a WBE) was established in 1990 and in that time, SERA has conducted more than 330 project assignments in the US and internationally, and has published extensively on our project research.  Our staff includes economists and analysts with experience in evaluation, surveys and statistics, quantitative, and policy analysis.  SERA has a reputation for quantitative, data-based research, and developing creative approaches to find practical (and affordable) methods to quantify complex or hard-to-measure impacts.  SERA is based in Colorado, and maintains an office in the Northwest.  SERA has presented the results of our research in 150 papers in trade journals, refereed journals, and national and international conference proceedings.  


SERA provides a range of economic, statistical, planning, and quantitative analysis work.  The firm and its multi-disciplinary staff have years of experience in key areas of utility-related research, including expertise in:  

           · Non-energy benefits (NEBs) and Benefit-Cost Tests and analytics 

           · Integrated planning assistance and statistical analysis and modeling. 

           · GHG emissions strategies and cost-effectiveness 

           · Net to Gross / attribution (NTG) 

           · EE process evaluation 

           · Persistence and measure life (EULs) 

           · Behavioral and social marketing programs design and evaluation 

           · Surveys, market research, focus groups, and stakeholder interviews  

           · Market progress indicators / tracking, market adoption    

           · Best practices in evaluation and M&V design / peer-review and oversight  


SERA’s work is designed to provide information to support decision making in program design / refinement, targeting and investment; customer retention; ratemaking; and resource planning. SERA's staff has experience working inside utilities as well as in a consulting role.    

Best Practices, Oversight, and Evaluation

For energy utilities, regulators, and states, SERA has provided detailed research on best practices in evaluation methods for impact, attribution / net to gross, measure lifetimes, and non-energy benefits work.    SERA’s process evaluation expertise is considerable, involving all phases including research design, methods, survey approach, sampling, instrument design, document review, context work / benchmarking, and analysis.  We have conducted market characterization / assessment / market potential for a host of residential, commercial, R&D, low income, and other programs – including measure-based, market transformation, education / training, real time pricing, and other programs.  We are very familiar with standard evaluation protocols, and with ISO requirements for evaluation. We have developed innovative methodologies and conducted “best practices” research and manuals for clients from California to the Northeast on impact and process evaluation, net-to-gross (NTG), surveys, measure lifetimes (EULs), and non-energy benefits (NEBs). We have conducted scores of program evaluations, and SERA staff have taught workshops in evaluation, and helped develop a manual on best practices in evaluation for MT programs.    


Dr. Skumatz conducted work for the California Public Utilities Commission assessing compliance of all state IOUs with mandated programs and activities for four program years; analyses with consequences in the tens of millions of dollars for regulatory proceedings. SERA served as advisors to ALJs on a variety of issues. We reviewed more than 100 studies to assess conformance with protocols; and reviewed measure life values and derivations to set new EUL values or protocols / guidelines for several states and agencies.  Dr. Skumatz conducted extensive work reviewing and providing advice on cost-effectiveness tests and revisions to better address goals and weaknesses. Her work in two areas have been developed into widely accepted protocols. SERA staff have provided expert witness testimony or documents for regulatory purposes in Maryland, Colorado, California, Connecticut and elsewhere. 


For the State of Connecticut, SERA is responsible for peer review and oversight of all energy efficiency evaluation work conducted in support of State gas and electric company  company portfolio, and is responsible for peer review of M&V design and reports in another state.  

Non-Energy Benefits & Measure Lifetimes

SERA is one of the leading firms nationally in NEBs. SERA has developed widely-cited state-of-the-art capabilities in measuring non-energy benefits – including applying sophisticated techniques to value and assess the impacts and behavioral changes for participants, measure job creation, and assess emissions impacts.  SERA created a Non-energy benefits computation model that is used across the State of California.  We have databases of measure and program-level residential and business NEB results, and thousands of residential and commercial surveys conducted nationwide that allow us to identify NEBs by program and business type and actor type. We lead the world in publications on NEBs, and in developing NEBs for the wide portfolio of programs, with metrics developed program-wide and by measure for residential, commercial, R&D, real time pricing, and other program types. We pioneered the use of measured “negative” NEBs as barriers to inform program design for improved program uptake. SERA has also conducted extensive work in best practices in the application of NEBs to marketing, program planning, and other uses, but especially in benefit-cost tests, including testimony and participation in proceedings in many states.  


SERA has conducted scores of statistical measure lifetime studies, as well as multiple national and regional review of EUL studies to identify best values, gaps, and transferability of values from other locations. SERA pioneered and developed the method that is currently protocol across the nation. SERA has expertise in all phases of the development of statistically-justifiable EUL work, including the surveys, specialized statistical analysis methods, and application.  We recently conducted a review of the EULs being used around the nation, exploring the quality of the studies underlying the values, examining the variation in EULs, and the rationale for variations in values. We have completed recent EUL studies in NY, IL, RI, ME, and CA.  

Benefit-Cost, Risk Factors, Market Adoption, Behavior, GHG & More

SERA published extensively on best practices for Utility Cost Tests, Societal Tests, TRC, Participant Tests, and others. We have expertise in refined tests, and in the elements of the tests, including NTG, Lifetimes, appropriate discount rates, and other elements. We have published extensively on the relative risk factors underlying key elements of existing benefit-cost tests, the range of risk associated, and improved calculations.  


Many of our projects have involved building Excel and other models to support scenario analysis and assess risks. This includes work examining the rate impact of alternative assumptions, effects of variations in participation forecasts, and other work. We have also conducted work modeling scenarios to assess the risk and threats to feedstock for biomass plants.  


SERA has conducted extensive traditional work to measure market progress and penetration attributable to program interventions. However, SERA has also developed cutting-edge approaches for measuring and attributing program effects using price decomposition regression work that mirrors market penetration that can work without a control group, and that identifies the trigger point for a program to “exit” the market. SERA has applied specialized and robust survey approaches and associated modeling methods to estimate market adoption given program intervention alternatives.


SERA has designed, conducted, and/or evaluated behavioral programs in the energy fields. This includes residential programs all across the nation, and additional evaluations of military programs, schools programs, and commercial programs. The work includes multiple social marketing projects, including detailed evaluations with quasi experimental design and detailed tracking of impacts, costs and persistence of effects. In one projects, we used our retention work to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of “cycling” a well-known behavioral energy program. For a large client in California, we prepared a wide-ranging best practices manual on behavioral programs, addressing impact evaluation, net-to-gross, retention, and NEB methods, results / state-of-the-art, and gaps. We have conducted detailed work measuring the impact of outreach and education programs, and have examined the impacts attributable to attitudinal and socio-demographic effects, including self-efficacy and other factors. 


Starting in 2007, SERA has been conducting work to examine the cost per MTCE from energy efficiency and other GHG-reduction strategies, comparing performance on cost-effectiveness and job creation effects, as well as other criteria important to our various clients, including speed of implementation, authority issues, coverage and diversity of responsibility, and other factors. We have also conducted work analyzing the impacts, feasibility, and cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for communities that are out of attainment to reach goals.        

Surveys, Interviews, & Focus Groups

SERA has conducted hundreds of survey projects for utilities, including surveys of the variety of relevant actors for process evaluation (participant, non-participants, builders / developers, and other stakeholders). We have conducted surveys for appliance saturation and end use surveys (commercial). We have extensive experience conducting, managing, and analyzing large survey projects for evaluation, measure retention/persistence, net-to-gross, NEBs, market share impacts, targeting / marketing and other applications.  SERA has expertise in survey issues including bias identification, imputation and bias reduction approaches, weighting, and other topics.  We have conducted thousands of detailed interviews with stakeholders and focus group work as part of process evaluation, “new measures”, market adoption, and other projects. These interviews have included commercial builders / developers / owners, residential households and builders, contractors, agricultural sectors, and others. In many recent stakeholder meetings we have used real-time voting options (clickers and remote voting) that have helped make meetings especially productive.  

Energy Project Client List

Measure lifetimes 

(NW Regional Technical Forum, States of ME, CA, NY, IL, RI; CPUC, SCE, BPA, PG&E, CCIG, PSE, NU, NRDC, Energy Journal) 


Non-energy benefits 

(NRDC, NGRID, CPUC / CIEE, Xcel, PG&E, NYSERDA, SCE, NU, SDG&E, IEA, NZ, BCHydro, Energy Center of Wisc, SCL, SCG, Rightlights, ASE, CYC, private client, CT)


Impact evaluations, attribution, NTG (PG&E, NYSERDA, SCL, BPA) 


Process evaluations 

(NYSERDA, NVEnergy, STEP-UP, PG&E, BPA, NU, ECWisc, Energy Trust of Oregon, SCE, CBEE, PSE, SCL, Curb Your Carbon (CYC))    


 Low income program support 

(NU, NGRID, PG&E, NGRID, Wisc DAS, SCG, NYSERDA, SDG&E, PSE, SCE, NRDC)  


RFP development / evaluation 

(State of CT, Xcel, NSP, PSCo)  


Potential studies 

(WWP, BC Hydro, MEEA) 

  Market characterization for commercial, residential, and multifamily programs

(NYSERDA, NU, PG&E, MEEA, WWP, PSE)   


Market assessment, market progress indicators, tracking 

(PG&E, NYSERDA portfolio-wide, NU, Rightlights, ASE, BPA, CBEE, private client)  


 Surveys and market research 

(NRDC, STEP/UP, ECW, PSE, SCL, NU, PG&E, SCE, NYSERDA, CEC, Sierra Pacific, WWP, BPA, CYC, NRDC)


 Behavioral / Education / Outreach evaluations 

(CIEE, State of CO, NYSERDA, State of Iowa, Curb Your Carbon, CEC Chicago, Alliance to Save Energy, National Guard, other) 


Commercial sector / stakeholder interviews 

(PG&E 4 programs, NYSERDA 7 programs, SCE 3 programs, Rightlights, Xcel Energy)      


Regulatory assistance, State Evaluation oversight, Peer Review 

(State of CT, Ameren, PG&E, CPUC, SCE, NU, PSE, NRDC, Energy Outreach Colorado, Xcel Energy) 


 Rate / Tariff Support and Research

(PG&E, PSE, SCL, private client, CPUC)   


Job creation / economic development / “green” jobs 

(NGRID, NRDC, PG&E, NU, SDG&E, SCL, SCG, ACEEE, CPUC / CIEE, Xcel Energy, WI-DAS) 


GHG / emissions estimation 

(PG&E, NYSERDA, SCE, NU, SDG&E, NZ, BCHydro, Energy Center of Wisc, SCL, SCG, NGRID, Rightlights, ASE, CYC, NRDC, NGRID)  


Rates / forecasting / statistical analysis 

(PSE, PG&E, PGE, NERA, EPRI)


Cost-Effectiveness Tests (CPUC/CIEE, PG&E, NRDC for MD, NRDC for CA, NRDC for Maine, NRDC for IL, ACEEE, IEA, NGRID, SDG&E, NYSERDA, EO Colorado)   


Best Practices / Framework/ Oversight 

(CIEE, State of CT, NVEnergy, State of California / CPUC, PG&E)    

SERA Key Staff Energy Bios

Dr. Lisa Skumatz- Principal / President

 Lisa A. Skumatz, Ph.D., is Principal of Skumatz Economic Research Associates.  An economist, she has more than 30 years of experience in energy evaluation.   For energy utilities, regulators, and states, she has provided detailed research and publications on best practices in evaluation methods for impact, attribution / net to gross, measure lifetimes, and non-energy benefits (NEBs) work.  She is nationally known and much-cited for her pioneering and exhaustive work in NEBs and is nationally recognized in measure lifetimes (EULs). She developed the methods that are currently used as best practices or in protocols for both these topics.  


She is the statewide Evaluation Oversight Administrator for the State of Connecticut, and provides peer review / best practices oversight for portfolio evaluation and M&V work for another state. She has expertise in behavioral programs, including design and evaluation work, and has published extensively on this topic. Lisa conducted cutting-edge work on market progress indicators and market adoption modeling, and has worked with utilities around the nation to incorporate new measures into programs. Dr. Skumatz conducted work for the California Public Utilities Commission assessing compliance of all state IOUs with mandated programs and activities for four program years; analyses with consequences in the tens of millions of dollars for regulatory proceedings. Dr. Skumatz served as advisor to ALJs on a variety of issues, and has developed testimony, regulatory support, and work papers for proceedings in California, Maryland, Connecticut, Illinois, Missouri, Colorado, and elsewhere. She conducted extensive work reviewing and providing advice on cost-effectiveness tests and revisions to better address goals and weaknesses.  She has conducted work on “best practices” and frameworks for evaluation for California and the CIEE.  


Dr. Skumatz developed the research plan, sampling, survey instruments, and analysis matrix for the analysis for the portfolio of residential, commercial, and renewables programs for a large northeast energy agency.  She brings special expertise in survey research and has conducted all phases of statistical survey for scores of projects for regulatory compliance, evaluation, NTG, measure life, appliance saturation, load research and other applications.  She has published specialized work in identification and treatment of survey bias in energy survey work in refereed journals.  Lisa has extensive experience in scenario analysis and risk assessment modeling. She has conducted work examining the cost-effectiveness of alternative GHG reduction strategies, and has conducted statistical work evaluating outreach programs.


She is a skilled and experienced facilitator of focus groups and stakeholder meetings. Dr. Skumatz has taught workshops and trainings in program evaluation at utilities and conferences around the country, and has published more than 145 papers in energy evaluation topics for all the leading national, and international energy evaluation conferences.  Dr. Skumatz holds a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin and a Ph.D. from The Johns Hopkins University (Economics / Econometrics).  

Dana D'Souza- Senior Energy Consultant & Project Manager

Dana D’Souza, has over 9 years of experience with SERA, and has conducted process evaluations, market progress research, NEB analysis, and detailed interview work for energy clients across the nation and internationally.  She has conducted detailed process / NTG / NEB telephone interviews with participants and non-participant homeowners, builders, and other stakeholders for projects in California, Colorado, Rhode Island and other states / utilities. She has conducted interviews and analysis of a large commercial and industrial energy efficiency rebate program for a client in NY, and other commercial interviews in California and elsewhere.    


She has collected and used data to measure market progress, identify key barriers and opportunities, and estimate the gross and net savings attributable to various energy related programs across the country.  She has detailed work in non-energy benefits work, assessing the “hard to measure” program impacts beyond energy savings that accrue due to program efforts.  Her non-energy benefits and net to gross work includes assisting Dr. Skumatz in her work for CIEE/CPUC on measuring behavioral impacts, analysis of the NEBs for the California Statewide Energy Star® Single Family Homes Program and Home Performance with Energy Star®, as well as the California Statewide Energy Star® Multifamily Homes Program, Green Campus program, San Francisco Environment, City of Oakland, Building Research of New Zealand, and other clients.  Ms. D’Souza conducted a detailed process analysis of the Green Campus program, analyzing the participation decision-making, program impacts, program design / implementation, and NEBs associated with the program.  


Ms. D’Souza has conducted work in DSM program tracking and evaluation, and conducted field and phone research on energy decision-making / program options / preferences.  She has analyzed the pros and cons of alternative policies and programs, identified the attributable effects, conducted and analyzed large-scale surveys and data.  She has conducted detailed interviews with building stakeholders, and has analyzed topics including attitudes, adoption of new practices, barriers, investment decisions, customer satisfaction, preferences and behavior.  She has presented her findings at multiple national conferences including AESP and ACEEE.    

Michael Santulli- Energy Analyst / LEED Associate

Mr. Santulli has strong statistical and analytical capabilities and has conducted work in surveys, measure lifetimes, non-energy benefits, and estimating job-creation impacts for energy efficiency clients around the country. He just recently completed work for a Northeastern utility, conducting detailed NEBs estimating both program-wide, and for a variety of specific measures so the updated information can be incorporated into the utility’s TRM and benefit-cost equations for the programs. For two recent projects, he used a detailed third-party input-output model to estimate the job creation and direct / indirect / induced economic effects for programs in the States of Illinois, Rhode Island, and National impacts. 


He has conducted work on measure lifetimes for measures in multiple states, using survey data on censored failures and retained measures to develop the hazard function and the median lifetime estimates for clients in the Northeast and Midwest. Mr. Santulli holds a degree in Environmental Studies from CU-Boulder, and holds LEED Certification.    

SERA Key Staff Energy Resumes

Click on a file to download.

SERA Energy Publications

Dr. Skumatz has more than 125 articles and papers (beyond reports) in trade journals, conference proceedings, refereed journals and other publications on her work in NEBs, evaluation techniques, measure lifetimes, surveys and bias reduction, program evaluation results, evaluation methods for education programs, self-efficacy, advanced baseline / impact evaluation methods, conditional demand, and other topics. She has another 150 publications (not including reports) in resource economics / recycling / sustainability.    Please contact us for other publications not listed here or any questions.

Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs), Climate Change, Jobs, and Hard To Measure Program Effects

  1. Non-Energy Benefits / NEBs – Wining at Cost-Effectiveness Dominos: State Progress and TRMs, Proceedings of the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, August 2016. 
  2. Evidence for Multiple Benefits or NEBs: Review on Progress and Gaps from the IEA Data and Measurement Subcommittee, Proceedings of the IEPPEC Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 2016 (with Weinzeihr) 
  3. Specific Risk Elements of Benefit-Cost Tests: Sources and Remedies Related to NEBs and Other Traditional Inputs, Proceedings of the IEPPEC Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, June 2016. 
  4. Efficiency Programs’ Non-Energy Benefits: How States are Finally Making Progress in Reducing Bias in Cost-Effectiveness Tests, The Electricity Journal, September 2015. 
  5. NEBs: The Latest in Results, Applications, and Best Practices for State Cost-Effectiveness Tests, Proceedings of the IEPEC Conference, August 2015. 
  6. Marketing Energy Efficiency – What I Learned from Betty White, Proceedings from the 2014 ACEEE Conference on Buildings, Asilomar, August 2014 
  7. Lessons from the Field: Practical Applications for Incorporating Non-Energy Benefits into Cost-Effectiveness Screening, (with Malmgren), Proceedings of the 2014 ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar CA, August 2014. 
  8. Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs): Theory, Measurement, and the Case for Revision of Utility Cost-Effectiveness Testing, Western Economics Association Conference, Denver, CO, July 2014. 
  9. Non-Energy Benefits in an Unusual Environment: The Military. An Example of Ready, Fire, Aim. Proceedings of the IEPEC Conference, August 2013. 
  10. A kWh is not just a kWh: Comparing Energy Efficiency Programs in Terms of GHG, Job Impacts, and Policy Achievements (NEBs and Beyond), Proceedings of the American Council for Energy Efficiency Summer Study on Buildings (ACEEE), Asilomar, CA,, August 2010. 
  11. Current and Best Practices for Attributing Effects to Energy Efficiency and Behavioral Programs – Discussion of Net-to-Gross (NTG) and Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs), EEDAL, Berlin, June 2009 
  12. Do Energy Efficiency Strategies Outperform Recycling in GHG Mitigation and Job Creation? IEPEC, Portland, August 2009 
  13. “Tapping Into” Commercial Energy Savings Two Non-Traditional Commercial Sector Energy Users, ACEEE, New York, August 2009 
  14. Using NEBs to Attract “Ordinary” Homeowners to Energy Efficiency: The New Zealand Case”, Proceedings of the 2007 IEPEC Evaluation Conference, Chicago, IL (Skumatz & Stoecklein) 
  15. NEBs from the Societal Perspective: Methods, Results, Patterns, and Implications”, proceedings of the 2007 IEPEC Evaluation Conference, Chicago, IL. (Skumatz) 
  16. Zero And Low Energy Homes In New Zealand: The Value Of Non-Energy Benefits And Their Use In Attracting Homeowners (Stoecklein And Skumatz, Paper 9314), Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  17. New Non-Energy Benefits (Nebs) Results In The Commercial / Industrial Sectors: Findings From Incentive, Retrofit, And Technical Assistance / New Construction Programs (Skumatz & BeMent, 7318),  Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  18. Commissioning In Public Sector Building—Non-Energy Benefits (Nebs), Not Savings, Are The Selling Point (McClain, Skumatz, And Jennings, 5313), Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  19. Attributable Effects From Information And Outreach Programs: Net To Gross, Nebs, And Beyond (Myers & Skumatz, 4322), Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  20. Measuring Non-Energy Benefits (Nebs): Valuation Approaches For Participant Nebs (Gardner & Skumatz, 5316),  Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  21. Economic Impacts From Energy Efficiency Programs –Variations In Multiplier Effects By Program Type And Region (Gardner & Skumatz, 3315), Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  22. NEBs for New Construction Programs: Implications for Building Green, GreenBuild Conference, Denver, CO, November 2006. Measuring “Hard to Measure” Non-energy benefits (NEBs) from Energy Programs: Methods and Results, American Evaluation Association, Portland, OR, November 2006. American Evaluation Association, Portland, OR, November 2006. 
  23. Creative Approaches to Measure Indirect and “Hard to Measure” (HTM) Program Effects: Non-energy Benefits as an Example, American Evaluation Association, Portland, OR, November 2006. 
  24. Optimizing Education and Program Outreach: Measuring the Impacts of Resource Conservation Programs, American Evaluation Association, Portland, OR, November 2006. 
  25. Actual vs. Perceived Energy Savings: What Causes the Difference and Why Is It Important?, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  26. Attributing NEB Values to Specific Measures: Using Statistical Methods to Disaggregate Results from Programs with Multiple Measures, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  27. Enhanced Techniques for Assessing Attribution, Causality, NEBs, and Cost-Effectiveness in Multifamily Programs, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  28. Net NEB Multipliers for Economic Impacts – Do Multipliers Vary Significantly by State and Program Type?, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  29. NEBs from Commissioning Programs: Methods, Results, and Implications, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  30. NEBs in the Commercial and Industrial Sector: Findings from TA, Incentive, Retrofit, and New Construction Programs, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  31. NEBs from Zero and Low Energy Homes, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  32. Methods for Measuring Non-Energy Benefits and Attributing Program Effects, Proceedings of the 2006 EEDAL Conference, London, England, June 2006.  
  33. NEBs in Low Income Applications: Methods, Results, and Implications, Proceedings of the Affordable Comfort International Conference, Austin, TX, May 2006. 
  34. Differences in the Valuation of Non-Energy Benefits According to Measurement Methodology: Causes and Consequences, Proceedings of the Association for Energy Service Professionals NESP Conference San Diego, CA, AESP, Clearwater FL, January 2006.  
  35. Methods and Results for Measuring Non-Energy Benefits in the Commercial and Industrial Sectors, Proceedings of the ACEEE Industrial Conference, West Point New York, July 2005. 
  36. Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) for a Real Time Pricing Experiment, Proceedings of the Association for Energy Service Professionals (AESP) Conference, Clearwater, Florida, December 2004.  
  37. The Most Volatile Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) – New Research Results “Homing In” on Values for Environmental and Economic Impacts, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  38. Using Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) to Market Zero and Low Income Homes in New Zealand, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  39. Non-Energy Benefits from ENERGY STAR®: Comprehensive Analysis of Appliance, Outreach, and Homes Programs, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  40. Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) in the Commercial Sector: Results from Hundreds of Buildings, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  41. Assessing the Economics of Environmental Program Policy Tradeoffs: Applications in Energy Efficiency, Presented to Keio University, Tokyo Japan, October 2003.  The “Mother” of Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) Studies – Comprehensive Analysis and Modeling of NEBs for Resource Acquisition and Market Transformation Programs, Proceedings of the EEDAL Conference, Turin, Italy, October 2003.  
  42. Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) in Offices and Schools: Do They Influence Building Design and Decision-Making?, Proceedings of the 2003 Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Seattle, WA, August 2003 
  43. Determining the Total Costs and Benefits of Commissioning Public Buildings, Proceedings of the 2003 Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Seattle, WA, August 2003 (Authors: Tso, Skumatz, Cohan) 
  44. The “Mother” of all Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) Studies, Presented at Western Economics International Conference, Denver, CO, June 2003.  
  45. Comparing Participant Valuation Results Using Three Advanced Survey Measurement Techniques: New Non-Energy Benefits (NEB) Computations of Participant Value, Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, Washington, DC, August 2002.  
  46. Non-Energy Benefits Including Productivity, Liability, Tenant Satisfaction, and Others: What Participant Surveys Tell Us About Designing and Marketing Commercial Programs, Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, Washington, DC, August 2002.  
  47. Making The Most Of Your Data – Reliable Techniques For Estimating Baseline And Projected Market Shares From Market Transformation Interventions With Limited Observation, Proceedings from the 2001 Association of Energy Service Professionals (AESP) Conference, Ponte Vedra, Florida, December 2001. 
  48. Non-Energy Benefits (Nebs) – A Comprehensive Analysis And Modeling Of NEBs For Commercial & Residential Program”, Proceedings from the 2001 Association of Energy Service Professionals (AESP) Conference, Ponte Vedra, Florida, December 2001.  
  49. Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) – The New “Standard” in Comprehensive Estimation and Modeling of NEBs for Commercial and Residential Programs, Proceedings to the 2001 International Energy Program Evaluation Conference, The Tenth International Evaluation Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, August, 2001. 
  50. Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs): Recognizing and Measuring All Net Program Benefits, Skumatz Economic Research Associates Research Report Number NEB2001-02, Boulder, CO, March, 2001.  
  51. Non-energy Benefits in the Residential and Non-Residential Sectors – Innovative Measurements and Results for Participant Benefits, for 2000 ACEEE Conference Proceedings, Asilomar, California, August 2000. 
  52. What Do Customers Value? What Benefits Utilities? Designing to Maximize Non-Energy Benefits from Efficiency Programs in the Residential Sector, 1999 Energy Evaluation Conference, Denver, August, 1999. 
  53. Extra! Extra! Non-Energy Benefits of Residential Programs Swamp Load Impacts!, 1998 ACEEE Conference Proceedings, Asilomar, California, August 1998. 
  54. Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs) Swamp Load Impacts – Results for Multiple Residential Programs, Skumatz Economic Research Associates Research Report Number NEB98-2, Boulder, CO, April 1998. 
  55. Recognizing All Program Benefits: Estimating the Non-Energy Benefits of PG&E’s Venture Partner Pilot Program (VPP), (coauthor), 1997 Energy Evaluation Conference, Chicago, August 1997. 
  56. Recognizing All Program Benefits: Estimates of Non-Energy Benefits from the Customer Perspective, Skumatz Economic Research Associates, Inc., Seattle, Washington, Research Paper Series 9699-3, 1996.  

Social Marketing / Outreach, Behavioral Programs

  1.  Behavioral Program Retention: Results, Implications, and Gaps, The Electricity Journal, June 2016, forthcoming. 
  2. Social Marketing in an Unusual Environment – The Military. One Case Study in Ready, Fire, Aim, Proceedings of the IEPEC Conferences, 2013.  
  3. Social Marketing Can Be Measured – Four Concrete Examples, Proceedings of the AESP Conference, Orlando, FL, 2013. 
  4. Is Social Marketing Actually Effective or Cost Effective? Theory, Pilots, and Full-Scale Results, and What it Means for Best Practices in Outreach, International Solid Waste Association conference, September 2012, Florence, Italy. 
  5. Measuring the Impacts of Behavior Change Programs – Filling in the Blanks, Proceedings of the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, August 2012, Asilomar, CA 
  6. Widgets vs. Actions: Measuring the Role of Behavior Change in DSM Programs, IEPEC International Conference, June 2012, Rome Italy. 
  7. Spending Your Outreach Dollar Wisely: Increasing Recycling Using Community-Based Social Marketing, Waste Advantage, February 2012 
  8. Filling Two Key Research Gaps in Social Marketing: Exploring Cost-Effectiveness and Retention in an Experiment to Influence Energy and Trash Recycling Behaviors, Proceedings of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists Conference (AERE), 2011.  
  9. Measuring the Impacts of Social Marketing – What is the “Bang for the Buck”? Is it Worth It?, Proceedings of the EEDAL Conference, 2011 
  10. Does Social Marketing Work: Addressing Measurement Gaps in Impacts and Retention for Behavioral Programs, Proceedings of the IEPEC Conference, 2011 (short presentation and poster) 
  11. Social Marketing – How Cost-Effective is it?, Resource Recycling April 2010. Social Marketing – Measuring Impacts and Costs in a Project in the Broadlands Neighborhood, Proceedings of the Solid Waste Association of North America Wastecon Conference, 2010. 
  12. The Broadlands Project: Using Social Marketing Theory to Influence Energy and Trash Recycling Behaviors, Proceedings of the AESP Conference, 2009. 
  13. Evaluation of the Green Campus Program, prepared for CPUC, October 2006. 
  14. Exploring the Role of Attitudes and NEBs in Green Initiatives: Results, Implications, and Uses for Evaluating “Green” Programs, Western Economics Association, San Diego, July 2006. 
  15. Valuing Hard to Measure Program Effects: Survey and Results, Western Economics Association, San Diego, July 2006. 
  16. Attributable Effects for Information and Outreach Programs: Net to Gross, NEBs, and Beyond, Proceedings of the ECEEE Conference, France, 2006. 
  17. Evaluating the Impacts of Education / Outreach Programs – Lessons on Impacts, Methods, and Optimal Education, (coauthor) for 2000 ACEEE Conference Proceedings, Asilomar, California, August 2000.  

Specialized Statistical Analysis

  1. Updated Measure Lifetime Estimates: EULs Based on 10 Years of Studies, Proceedings of the 2007 IEPEC Evaluation Conference, Chicago, IL. 
  2. Incremental / Hedonic Price Analysis: Cost-Effective Methods of Tracking Program Impacts Over Time, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  3. Differences in the Valuation of Non-Energy Benefits According to Measurement Methodology: Causes and Consequences, Proceedings of the Association for Energy Service Professionals NESP Conference San Diego, CA, AESP, Clearwater FL, January 2006.  
  4. Attributing NEB Values to Specific Measures: Using Statistical Methods to Disaggregate Results from Programs with Multiple Measures, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  5. Decomposing Price Differentials Due to Energy Star Labels and Energy Efficiency Features in Appliances: Proxy for Market Share Tracking?, proceedings of the ECEEE Conference, Cote d’Azur, France, May 2005. 
  6. Efficient Techniques for Estimating Baseline and Market Shares Projections from Market Transformation Interventions”, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  7. Self-Efficacy in Conservation – How Much Does it Matter Whether Customers Believe they Can Effect Change?”, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  8. Successful Techniques for Identifying, Measuring, and Attributing Causality in Residential Programs, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  9. Buying Into Conservation – How Much Does it Matter Whether Customers Believe They Can Effect Change?”, Proceedings of the EEDAL Conference, Turin, Italy, October 2003. 
  10. Estimating Baseline and Projected Market Shares from MT Interventions with Limited Observations – Making the Most of Your Data, Proceedings of the EEDAL Conference, Turin, Italy, October 2003. 
  11. Comparing Participant Valuation Results Using Three Advanced Survey Measurement Techniques: New Non-Energy Benefits (NEB) Computations of Participant Value, Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, Washington, DC, August 2002.  
  12. Making The Most Of Your Data – Reliable Techniques For Estimating Baseline And Projected Market Shares From Market Transformation Interventions With Limited Observation, Proceedings from the 2001 Association of Energy Service Professionals (AESP) Conference, Ponte Vedra, Florida, December 2001. 
  13. Energy Consumption, Appliance Holding, Housing, and Demographic Characteristics of Target Groups in the PGandE Service Territory, (author), in Proceedings for DOE Conference on Socioeconomic Research and Analysis, 1987, updated version in Proceedings for ACEEE Conference, Asilomar, California, 1988. 
  14. Non-Response in Residential Energy Surveys: Systematic Patterns and Implications for End-Use Models, (co-author), in The Energy Journal, 1988 
  15. Truncation Bias in Energy Demand Equations: Effects of Missing Survey Data, in Proceedings for the PG&E Energy Expo, 1986. 
  16. Truncation Bias in Energy Demand Equations: Effects of Missing Survey Data, (primary author), Proceedings for ACEEE Summer Study, 1986, ACEEE Washington DC.  

Evaluation Methods, Results, and Policy Implications

  1. The Tri-Fecta: Comprehensive Review and Best Practices in Impact, Attribution, and Retention of Behavioral Programs and Beyond, Proceedings of the EEDAL Conference, 2011 
  2. Status Quo and Gaps for Impact, Attribution and Retention of Behavioral Programs and Beyond, Proceedings of the IEPEC Conference, 2011 (poster presentation) 
  3. Saving Energy and Water in On-Premise Laundry and Commercial Warewashing Sectors, Proceedings of the IEPEC Conference, 2011 (short presentation/poster) 
  4. Finally – A Simple Way of Getting Measures with More than 3 Year Paybacks Installed!”, Proceedings of the American Council for Energy Efficiency Summer Study on Buildings (ACEEE), Asilomar, CA,, August 2010. 
  5. Best Practices and Issues in Attribution and Net-to-Gross – Results of the SERA Nationwide Whitepaper Study for CIEE, Proceedings of the American Council for Energy Efficiency Summer Study on Buildings (ACEEE), Asilomar, CA,, August 2010. 
  6. Tracking Market Progress – Alternatives to Market Share Methods to Better Identify “Market Effects” and Program Exit Information, EEDAL 2009 Recycling vs. Energy Efficiency Programs –Which are More Cost-Effective for Reducing GHG?, Western Economics Association, Vancouver BC, June 2009 
  7. Measuring Progress In Appliance Market Transformation Programs: Weaknesses Of Traditional Sales / Shipment Methods And Innovative Proxy Metrics – The “NEEPP” Tracking Approach (Skumatz, 6317), Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  8. Green Campus: Innovative Approaches To Energizing The “Next Generation” Toward Energy Efficiency And Green Behaviors (Coghlan And Skumatz, 3320), Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  9. Integrated, Real Time (IRT), On-Going Data Collection For Evaluation – Benefits And Comparative Results (Gordon & Skumatz, 4323),  Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  10. Incremental / Hedonic Price Analysis: Cost-Effective Methods of Tracking Program Impacts Over Time, Proceedings for the ACEEE Summer Study on Buildings, Asilomar, CA, August 2006. 
  11. Findings and Gaps in CFL Evaluation Research, Proceedings of the 2006 EEDAL Conference, London, England, June 2006.  
  12. Comparing Award Mechanisms - What Works?, Proceedings of the 2005 International Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Brooklyn, NY, August 2005 
  13. Decomposing Price Differentials Due to Energy Star Labels and Energy Efficiency Features in Appliances: Proxy for Market Share Tracking?, proceedings of the ECEEE Conference, Cote d’Azur, France, May 2005. 
  14. Techniques for Getting the Most from and Evaluation: Review of Methods and Results for Attributing Progress, Non-Energy Benefits, Net to Gross, and Cost-Benefit, proceedings of the ECEEE Conference, Cote d’Azur, France, May 2005. 
  15. Efficient Techniques for Estimating Baseline and Market Shares Projections from Market Transformation Interventions”, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  16. Self-Efficacy in Conservation – How Much Does it Matter Whether Customers Believe they Can Effect Change?”, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  17. Successful Techniques for Identifying, Measuring, and Attributing Causality in Residential Programs, Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA, August 2004. 
  18. Buying Into Conservation – How Much Does it Matter Whether Customers Believe They Can Effect Change?”, Proceedings of the EEDAL Conference, Turin, Italy, October 2003. 
  19. Estimating Baseline and Projected Market Shares from MT Interventions with Limited Observations – Making the Most of Your Data, Proceedings of the EEDAL Conference, Turin, Italy, October 2003. Decision-Making And Intervention Needs In New Offices And Schools – Results Of Detailed Interviews And Surveys For The Energy Center Of Wisconsin, Proceedings to the 2002 AESP Conference, Ponte Verdra, FL, December 2002. 
  20. Evaluating Multi-Resource Audit Programs to Demonstrate Sustainability, Payback, and Customer Benefits: Incorporating Non-Energy Benefits (NEBs), Proceedings to the 2001 International Energy Program Evaluation Conference, The Tenth International Evaluation Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, August, 2001. 
  21. A Framework for Planning and Assessing Publicly Funded Energy Efficiency, (coauthor), for AESP Conference Proceedings, October 2000. 
  22. Evaluating the Impacts of Education / Outreach Programs – Lessons on Impacts, Methods, and Optimal Education, (coauthor) for 2000 ACEEE Conference Proceedings, Asilomar, California, August 2000. 
  23. Working Toward Market Transformation Through Residential and Non-Residential Standard Performance Contract (SPC) Programs – Lessons Learned on Delivery, Design, Participation, and Needs, (coauthor) for 2000 ACEEE Conference Proceedings, Asilomar, California, August 2000. 
  24. New Methods for Assessing the Effects of Market Transformation Programs, Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, (coauthor), prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company, October 2000. 
  25. Tracking Methods for Residential Market Transformation Programs – Methods and Preliminary Results, SERA Working Paper, August, 1999. 
  26. Transforming Markets to Get Efficiency into the Residential Sector: Where are the Contractors and What Do They Want and Need?, 1999 Energy Program Evaluation Conference Proceedings, Denver, Colorado, August 1999. 
  27. Market Transformation Through Nonresidential Standard Performance Contract Programs – What Drives the Participation Decision? 1999 Energy Program Evaluation Conference Proceedings, Denver, Colorado, August 1999.  
  28. Joint On-Site Audits: Getting More for Less with Collaborative Field Visits, (coauthor), 1997 Energy Evaluation Conference, Chicago, August 1997. J
  29. oint On-Site Audits: Providing Better (and More Cost-Effective) Service to Customers, (coauthor), 1996 ACEEE Summer Study, Asilomar, CA.  

Measure Retention and Persistence of Savings

  1. Persistence of Behavioral Programs: New Information and Implications for Program Optimization, The Electricity Journal, June 2016. 
  2. Mercury-Containing Thermostats – Population, Lifetimes, Decay, and Policy Implications: A Study in Several States, Western Economics Association Conference, Denver, CO, July 2014. 
  3. What Makes a Good EUL? New Protocols for Estimating Useful Lifetimes and An Analysis of Existing Estimates, IEPEC International Conference, June 2012, Rome Italy. 
  4. The Tri-Fecta: Comprehensive Review and Best Practices in Impact, Attribution, and Retention of Behavioral Programs and Beyond, EEDAL 2011 (also listed above in “Methods”) 
  5. Remaining Useful Lifetimes and Persistence – Literature and Methods, Proceedings of the IEPEC Conference, 2011 
  6. Status Quo and Gaps for Impact, Attribution and Retention of Behavioral Programs and Beyond, Proceedings of the IEPEC Conference, 2011 (poster presentation; also listed above in “Methods”) 
  7. How Long Do Program Savings Last? Issues in Measure Lifetimes and Retention of Savings and Behaviors, EEDAL, Berlin, June 2009 
  8. Updated Measure Lifetime Estimates: EULs Based on 10 Years of Studies, Proceedings of the 2007 IEPEC Evaluation Conference, Chicago, IL.  
  9. Incorporating Real-World Data Into Measure Lifetime Estimates: How Long Does Energy Efficient Equipment Really Last On-Site?, (Woods & Skumatz, 4319), Proceedings for the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), June 2007, France. 
  10. Measure Retention, Pricing Analysis, and Actual vs. Perceived Savings, Proceedings of the 2006 EEDAL Conference, London, England, June 2006.  
  11. Best Practices in Measure Retention and Lifetime Studies: Standards for Reliable Measure Retention Methodology Derived from Extensive Review, Proceedings of the 2005 International Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Brooklyn, NY, August 2005  
  12. Measure Retention Study: Revised Lifetimes for a Residential Weatherization Program, Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, Washington, DC, August 2002.  
  13. Measure Retention in Residential New Construction, (coauthor) for 2000 ACEEE Conference Proceedings, Asilomar, California, August 2000. 
  14. ECM and Equipment Lifetimes: Results and Implications of Recent Measure Life Studies, (primary author), 1995 Energy Program Evaluation Conference, Chicago, August, 1995. 
  15. Effective ECM Measure Lifetimes in Commercial Buildings: Calculations and Analysis of Impacts. (primary author) 1994 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Berkeley, California  
  16. Bonneville Measure Life Study: Effect of Commercial Building Changes on Energy Using Equipment, (co-author), for Bonneville Power Administration, 1991, a version of which appeared in Proceedings: ACEEE 1992 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.